exemplary damages cases

Compensation is standardly awarded after accidents where the plaintiff was not at fault, such as work-related injury or car accidents. ‘The principled case for retention [of exemplary damages] begins with the proposition that civil punishment is a different type of punishment from criminal punishment; the conclusion drawn from this is that it is coherent to pursue the aims of punishment (retribution, deterrence, disapproval) through the civil law, in addition to the criminal law and in a civil form which does not necessarily mimic the criminal form’. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - LawTeacher is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. All of the above arguments are substantive and although there appears to be more arguments opposing such an award the view here is that the arguments in favour outweigh those to the contrary and therefore the opinion here is definitely favourable. Exemplary damages may also be awarded in cases of bad faith, fraud, malevolence or wantonness in the violation of this Code or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. They are the legal system's method of discouraging future bad behavior by making it financially harmful to the defendant. Punishment is also an argument in favour of exemplary damages with some arguing that this is the primary objective for their existence. 2230. Lord Devlin identified three types of cases in which exemplary damages, the purpose of which was not to compensate the claimant but to punish the defendant, to deter such behaviour in the future and to express the court’s disapproval of the behaviour, could be awarded. 11.28 In Lamb v Cotogno the High Court quoted from Mayne & McGregor on Damages their oft-cited description of exemplary damages: Such damages are variously called punitive damages, vindictive damages, exemplary damages, and even retributory damages. Two further arguments in favour of exemplary damages are that not only do they protect civil liberties, a right which should be vindicated by retributive justice, but they are also considered to be therapeutic. The object of exemplary damages is to punish and deter’. I am not sure it would be right to draw a hard-and-fast line which would always exclude such companies and persons from the reach of exemplary damages. The object of damages in the usual sense of the term is to compensate. In criminal offenses, exemplary damages as a part of the civil liability may be imposed when the crime was committed with one or more aggravating circumstances. Punitive damages are also called exemplary damages. Looking for a flexible role? This scenario is similar to a real-life example of extra damages being awarded: In 1994 Stella Liebeck, then 79 years old, spilled hot coffee on her lap in McDonald’s. Here lies the possibility of extra damages being awarded. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Following Lord Devlin’s very prominent judgment a bar of action was imposed on exemplary damage cases, this bar implemented by the case of AB v South West Water Services (1993) which involved an action for public nuisance and negligence. Your email address will not be published. ‘From time to time cases do arise where awards of compensatory damages are perceived as inadequate to achieve a just result between the parties. Free resources to assist you with your legal studies! Strong & Liz Williams, (2008), Complete Tort Law, Text, Cases and Materials, Oxford University Press, New York, Alan Reed, (1996), Exemplary damages: a persuasive argument for their retention as a mechanism of retributive justice, Civil Justice Quarterly, Westlaw, Allan Beever, (2003), The structure of aggravated and exemplary damages, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Westlaw, Lesley J. Anderson, (1992), An exemplary case for reform, Civil Justice Quarterly, Westlaw, Michael Jefferson, (2009), Aggravated and exemplary damages and post-1964 torts, Professional Negligence, Westlaw, Kuddus v Chief Constable of Leicester (2001) UKHL 29. While the facts underlying most cases will not give rise to such extraordinary awards, judges are clearly willing to test the boundaries of reasonableness in respect of punitive damages. Moreover, ‘criminal justice properly requires that the defendant is on notice as to what constitutes wrongdoing. How To Meet More New People When You Are Single, Australian Tax Insights – Do You Qualify For Personal Service. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. If you feel you deserve this extra damages payment, it’s certainly worth fighting for! Punitive damages are damages awarded in a civil trial as a way to punish a defendant for gross negligence or severe misconduct. Exemplary damages are awarded to compensate for mental anguish, humiliation, outrage, or increased injury to the plaintiff’s feelings that he or she suffers due to the defendant’s willful, malicious, or wanton conduct or reckless disregard for the plaintiff’s rights. Art. In this case, the 1st plaintiff appellant claimed N100,000 exemplary damages for unlawful entry on the premises at No. The object of damages in the usual sense of the term is to compensate. You will often hear of people suing someone for compensation when they have been physically or mentally harmed during an accident. A further factor adding to the problem of uncertainty with regards to the amount awarded is the use of a jury in assessing and determining cases involving defamation. Recommendations by the Law Commission suggest that there is a need for insurance against claims for exemplary damages and that there be the possibility of vicarious liability whereby an innocent employer will be held liable in circumstances where employees are unlikely to be able to satisfy an award or where identifying the blameworthy member of the employers staff is proven problematic. You should not treat any information in this essay as being authoritative. Each respondent was accordingly ordered to pay a further £20,000 to Axa in exemplary damages. In the end, she received a massive $160,000 in compensation and $480,000 in punitive damages. Rookes v Barnard [1964] AC1129. Restitutionary damages are a less extreme remedy than exemplary damages. As a result of this bar exemplary damages were not available in those causes of action where such damages had not been awarded prior to the case of Rookes v Barnard (1964), this including public nuisance and negligence. This is reflected by increasing statutory intervention and a consequent emasculation of common law crimes’, yet, this basic principle is offended because of the ambiguity as to what conduct justifies an award of punitive damages. In this case, a judge will hope that by financially punishing the defendant to a greater degree, it will deter future ill behavior. While the intent behind the court issuing Punitive damages in Michigan is to deter the defendant from further bad behavior, Exemplary Damages are actually instated to reward plaintiffs. In the case of Rookes v Barnard (1964) in which the plaintiff, a skilled draughtsman, brought an action for damages after he had been subjected to unlawful means of inducement to terminate his contract of service, and/or a conspiracy to have him dismissed, Lord Devlin held that ‘there are certain categories of cases in which an award of exemplary damages can serve a useful purpose in vindicating the strength of the law and thus affording a practical justification for admitting into the civil law a principle which ought logically to belong to the criminal’. They are awarded both to deter the defendant and others from conduct similar to the conduct that gave rise to the lawsuit, and to punish the defendant. They are also called exemplary damages.. Read on to find out more. Here we will discuss the subtle differences and explain why they exist, especially in the state of Michigan. This is because the court will usually award up to four times the amount of regular compensation awarded. relating to exemplary damages. Some jurisdictions recognize a form of damages, called, aggravated damages, that are similar to punitive or exemplary damages. An award for exemplary damages is considered separately to other heads of damages. Punitive damages in contract law are monetary damages awarded to a plaintiff to punish the defendant and prevent him from engaging in the same conduct at any point in the future. Moreover the possibility of double jeopardy is also a concern although this can however be resolved by denying the right to recover exemplary damages where there is a real possibility of criminal proceedings. ‘General ‘defects’ include the following: that the state does not have sufficient resources to apprehend all criminals; that the state may not wish to prosecute, or to continue prosecutions which it has begun; that the substantive scope of the criminal law may not extend to all wrongs which merit punishment’ and therefore an action for exemplary damages is a more appropriate form of punishment and ‘an efficient way of achieving the full legal response’. Aggravated damages. While the intent behind the court issuing Punitive damages in Michigan is to deter the defendant from further bad behavior, Exemplary Damages are actually instated to reward plaintiffs. ‘To allow the defendant to plead that there should be a reduction in the amount of punitive damages on the grounds that the plaintiff was also at fault dilutes the punishment thereby imposed on him notwithstanding that disapproval of the defendant’s conduct remains the same’. An award of exemplary damages can therefore place a plaintiff in a better position than what he or she was in prior to the wrongdoing, this deterring the defendant by punishing him or her further. In so far as there may be a need to go further, the key here would seem to be’ ‘outrageous conduct on the part of the defendant. There are many reasons why a judge may award exemplary damages. Exemplary or corrective damages are imposed, by way of example or correction for the public good, in addition to the moral, temperate, liquidated or compensatory damages. As explained above, the offending party must act with malice. lifestyle-related articles and information, 6 Reasons Why Franchising Is A Great Idea, VAPORESSO’s First-Round PMTA Applications Were Accepted By FDA. However, in some cases, punitive damages are awarded in insurance bad faith cases that arise under an insurance policy. Not all nations allow courts to award exemplary damages and nations which do … For example, if you were a victim and were paid $25,000 in compensation to cover your expenses, the court could award you up to $100,000 in punitive or exemplary damages. According to Ernest Weinrib, the remedy is ‘encased in controversy’. If you are interested in even more lifestyle-related articles and information from us here at Bit Rebels, then we have a lot to choose from. Take a look at some weird laws from around the world! ‘The first category is oppressive, arbitrary or unconstitutional action by the servants of the government’, and ‘cases in the second category are those in which the defendant’s conduct has been calculated by him to make a profit for himself which may well exceed the compensation payable to the plaintiff’ ‘ and to these two categories which are established as part of the common law there must of course be added any category in which exemplary damages are expressly authorised by statute’. • Punitive damages may only be awarded for breach of an independent actionable wrong. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. … Indeed, the validity of the dividing line drawn by Lord Devlin when formulating his first category is somewhat undermined by his second category, where the defendants are not confined to, and normally would not be, government officials or the like. 7 In . Instead, it looks to the conduct of the defendant. Although often requested, exemplary damages are seldom awarded. Exemplary damages. ‘Exemplary damages are essentially different from ordinary damages. One solution offered to curtail this problem is that the law should impose a cap on amounts awarded, this however, does defeat the principle of deterrence because ‘if deterrence is the main objective, there must be an attempt to tailor the amount of punitive damages to the level of deterrence required, an aim which is lost if the levels of damages are fixed’. Exemplary damages are seen as an extra financial reward to a plaintiff based on the nature of their suffering and go above and beyond standard compensation. On the contrary, where conduct is not punishable by criminal law or is but rarely prosecuted then this begs the question why, ‘if the conduct in question is thought insufficiently serious to demand criminal regulations, punishment is thought appropriate when applied indirectly through the law of torts’. ‘Rather than approach the problem by asking how punitive damages can be a useful and convenient way of redressing these problems it should first be explained why the criminal law does not or cannot be made to fulfil adequately society’s desire to punish and to punish properly’. All rights reserved. In both cases, Does It Make Sense To Put A Google Home In Your Car? This means they were willfully negligent, and a judge may award you punitive or exemplary damages at this point. In Australia, punitive damages are not available for breach of contract, but are possible for tort cases. As previously mentioned, punitive damages are awarded mainly as a deterrent. However, this could be resolved by allowing the ‘judge to rule on quantum after a jury finding on liability and, possibly, whether a punitive award should be made’. However, these suggestions are totally unfounded because the aim of exemplary damages is to punish and these proposals completely lose sight of this aim altogether. Exemplary damages has been awarded in cases related to environment as well. Twitter Likes Or How To Get More Appreciation From Followers? Claimants prefer to issue proceedings in the civil arena rather than appearing in the criminal court as the civil process enables the person harmed to retain control of proceedings and … Some of the examples are: While there is no set limit on how much may be awarded in the way of punitive or exemplary damages, there is a common precedent set. Instead, the victim, or plaintiff, must first be entitled to an award of compensatory damages, restitution, or nominal damages. Required fields are marked *. In addition to this further offence is given to the notion that the prescribed punishment should fit the crime; criminal law often specifies penalties, whereas the amounts of punitive damages which can be awarded are usually at large and because of the lack of specification relating to how much need be awarded, this in turn leads to uncertainty as awards vary vastly. can help. The powers of the Supreme Court under Article 32 are not restricted and it can award damages in a PIL or a writ petition as has been held in a series of decisions. In Texas, the purpose of punitive damages, also known as exemplary damages, are to punish bad actors and deter or prevent other bad actors in the future. Definition of Exemplary Damages. 6th Aug 2019 Contrary to the above are many arguments in favour for the abolition of exemplary damages, the most basic of these being that the function of private law is to compensate and the role of criminal law to punish, consequently, it is argued by many that exemplary damages belong to criminal law as a form of punishment whereby punishment originates from the state, however, those opposing this believe that these two laws ought not to have exclusive functions. Exemplary damages, also known as punitive damages, can be awarded to a plaintiff as a way to punish a defendant for extremely harmful conduct. Reference this. Your email address will not be published. The Court of Appeal held that this was to look at things ‘through the wrong end of the telescope’ and that this case, involving ‘outrageous conduct and abusive behaviour’, was in fact a paradigm case for the award of exemplary damage. These damages are also known as punitive damages in some legal systems. The award of exemplary damages is a very controversial remedy in civil law this providing many arguments for its retention and many for its abolition. A jury found McDonald’s guilty of knowing their product was dangerous and therefore awarded both regular compensation and punitive damages. Mrs. Liebeck had long-lasting effects from this incident, which is why punitive damages were sought. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This is a subtle difference, but a big one. The three cases outlined above are exemplary and help illustrate the upper range of punitive damages available to plaintiffs. Standard compensation in the United States is awarded to a plaintiff to help them pay off any costs incurred after an accident or during a court case. In some cases, courts award exemplary damages in addition to actual damages, which are also referred to as "compensatory damages." However, there are slight differences between the two. Punitive and Exemplary Damages are both types of compensation awarded to plaintiffs. Punitive damages are extra-compensatory damages the aim of which is to punish the defendant for his wrongful conduct and to deter him and others from acting similarly in the future. This somewhat contradicts the purpose of exemplary damages because death as a result of a tort seems to afford the strongest case for punishment and to allow a deceased victim’s estate pursue a claim for damages further promotes the principle of deterrence. 12.12 It is likely that nominal damages will only rarely, if ever, be appropriate where the new tort is made out, because of the requirement of seriousness as an element of the tort. Accordingly, in M.C Mehta v. They are additional to an award which is intended to compensate a plaintiff fully for the loss he has suffered, both pecuniary and non-pecuniary’ and awarded for conduct which outrages the courts. ‘Exemplary damages or punitive damages, the terms are synonymous, stand apart from awards of compensatory damages. The object of exemplary damages is to punish and deter’. In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Exemplary Damages : (punitive damages, vindictive damages) Damages given to punish the defendant rather than (or as well as) to compensate the claimant for harm done.Such damages are exceptional in tort, since the general rule is that damages are given only to compensate for loss caused. John Cooke, (2005), Law of Tort, 7th Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Essex, S. I. • Exemplary damages (synonymous with “punitive damages”) are an award made not for the purpose of compensating the plaintiff but for punishing the defendant. Nonetheless, even though a report by the Law Commission stated that exemplary damages should be available to all torts, upon consideration of an award for exemplary damages, it was held that it is not necessary to consider whether the cause of action was of one which had been awarded prior to 1964 but instead whether the situation in which an award is being claimed is covered by Lord Devlin’s formulation. Exemplary damages are not automatically given. Exemplary damages are damages awarded in a court case which go beyond compensation to the victim. VAT Registration No: 842417633. There have been major awards in egregious (remarkable or outstanding) cases, such as fraud schemes, sexual harassment, or other intentional and vicious actions even when the provable actual damages were not extensive. There are a number of rules which apply to individuals attempting to reduce or defer their income tax by diverting their personal services through com ... © 2020 Bit Rebels. One final issue regarding exemplary damages is that upon the death of the claimant claims for an award of exemplary damages are extinguished but survive the death of the defendant, this provided the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1934 s1(2)(a). Exemplary damages are available in certain cases and have been severely limited by state law and court decisions. Because a claimant has more control over the litigation and because the claimant retains any damages awarded it is believed that by witnessing the court demand that the defendant pay damages, the claimant gains a psychological benefit which in turn aids recovery. Typically, the plaintiff may receive up to about three times the compensatory award. ‘National and international companies can exercise enormous power. However, in the case of Kuddus v Chief Constable of Leicester (2001) not only was this bar unanimously removed but Lord Nicholls also heavily criticised Lord Devlin’s formulation because whatever the position forty years ago, he respectfully inclined to doubt the soundness of the distinction between government officials and companies and individuals. Allowing a plaintiff to pursue a civil action for exemplary damages is thought to deter reoccurrence of the tortfeasors behaviour as the punishment incurred goes beyond compensation and beyond putting right the damage caused. There is no obvious reason why, if exemplary damages are to be available, the profit motive should suffice but a malicious motive should not’. As opposed to aggravated damages, exemplary damages are not based on the injury to the plaintiff. Punitive damages are also referred to as exemplary damages and are only one type of award given to the plaintiff. Exemplary damages in New Zealand arise in cases involving outrageous conduct. There is a slight difference with Exemplary damages. 63.2. Exemplary and Punitive Damages At paragraph 33 of the decision, the Court of Appeal firstly clarified that exemplary and punitive damages are two terms which are used interchangeably. ‘Exemplary damages are essentially different from ordinary damages. She sued McDonald’s when they refused to pay her medical bills for extensive burns to her legs. Exemplary or punitive damages are awarded when the court finds the defendant’s conduct is particularly reprehensible. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on LawTeacher.net then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Punitive damages, or exemplary damages, are awarded to a plaintiff in addition to compensatory damages as a way to punish the defendant for a purposeful or especially negligent action. Exemplary damages . Aggravated damages are claimable in civil defamation proceedings, amongst other areas, however questions exist as to whether they may be claimed in negligence or personal injury cases. This is a subtle difference, but a big one. Nor, I may add, am I wholly persuaded by Lord Devlin’s formulation of his second category (wrongful conduct expected to yield a benefit in excess of any compensatory award likely to be made). Call us today at 281-283-8500 for a free case evaluation and learn how we can put our experience and record … Punitive damages are award in addition to any compensatory or other damages, increasing the plaintiff’s total award. Lord Devlin said, Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Exemplary damages are set according to the compensatory damages awarded to the plaintiff. With respect to exemplary damages: 5 Conclusion 6 MORAL DAMAGES AND EXEMPLARY DAMAGES: THE SUPREME COURT SETS CERTAIN PRINCIPLES On October 3, 1996, the Supreme Court rendered two important judgments regarding the criteria for granting and evaluating moral damages and for granting exemplary damages. Even if those requirements are met, the amount that can be awarded for exemplary damages is not unlimited. Well aware that if these proposals were accepted, this would ‘impose limits not hitherto expressed on such awards and that there is powerful, though not compelling, authority for allowing them a wider range’, Lord Devlin proposed two categories in which exemplary damages should be awarded. However, punitive aim more at punishing the defendant, deterring them from acting in the same way in the future. As exemplary damages. they refused to pay a further £20,000 to Axa in exemplary are. Of Michigan similar to punitive or exemplary ) damages. award exemplary damages with arguing... 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